How to Become a Botanist

Last updated February 28, 2024

Depending on the climate, different plants grow around you, creating an ecosystem that changes every season – they bloom, hibernate and sometimes even give fruit. Plants are essential for life on Earth, as they provide us with food, fuel and oxygen. There are nearly half a million plant species (that we know of!), many vulnerable to climate change. Your phone might be full of photos of them. If you’re captivated by plants, gardens and their environment, consider learning how to become a botanist.

Botanists study plants to understand better how they work. Botany helps us develop better crops and medicines, help with environmental conservation, and create renewable energy sources. There are many types of botanists. Some botanists study how plants interact with their environment, and others help us protect endangered species or create new medicines. 

No matter what a botanist studies, we all benefit from their work. If you love nature, studying botany can be an exciting career. You can learn more about the complex relationships between plants and their environment. 

So, if you want to become a botanist, what major should you pursue, and how can you gain practical experience?

What is a botanist, and what do they do?

As we mentioned, a botanist is a scientist who studies plants and the environment in which they grow. Botanists are scientists who learn about plant structure, function, classification and evolution and how plants fit into their ecosystem. They investigate the impact of plants in particular ecosystems to understand better how nature operates in these areas. Given the strain of climate change on growing zones, botanists now even study new weather patterns and develop better pest-resistant plant strains that will continue feeding us in the future.

You can work on different botany specialization areas, including:

  • Taxonomy. A research process that involves discovering and categorizing new plant species based on their characteristics and features.
  • Ecology. The study of plants in relation to their environment.
  • Physiology. The study of plant structures and their functions, including photosynthesis and mineral nutrition.
  • Biology. A field of study concerning the interactions between plant cells and their daily functions and reproductive activities.

For instance, a botanist specializing in ecology may test and analyze plant properties to compare the similarities and differences of plants in unique ecosystems. Attention to detail, critical thinking and patience are crucial to succeed in this field, especially when participating in fieldwork, demographic monitoring, plant classification and more.

What degree do you need to become a botanist?

Botanists need a solid educational foundation to identify new discoveries and challenges, much like biologist Gregor Mendel, who bred pea plants and discovered the transmission of genetic traits before anyone knew genes existed.

Expect to spend at least four years earning a bachelor’s degree to find entry-level jobs in this field. Botany jobs in research or teaching may require you to have a master’s degree, which may take another two to three years to complete.

Bachelor’s degree

So, how to become a botanist? You’ll need a bachelor’s degree in botany, plant science, plant ecology, biology or conservation biology. Depending on your primary focus within botany, you can always pursue a bachelor’s degree in chemistry, forestry, environmental science or a related field.  

To excel in the field of botany, it is essential to have a diverse range of practical experience. This will help you not only identify your specific area of interest within the broad realm of botany but also demonstrate your abilities to prospective employers. To maximize your job prospects, actively seek internships, volunteer work and other opportunities to gain real-world experience besides your studies. These experiences can provide valuable learning opportunities and help you build a strong foundation for a successful career in botany.

While a bachelor’s degree may qualify you for some entry-level positions, pursuing advanced degrees can enhance career prospects, especially for research-oriented roles and academia.

Advanced degrees

Botany is a field where advanced degrees are quite common. Most research and academic jobs require a master’s degree or Ph.D. If you want to move up the career ladder, obtaining more advanced degrees will allow you to specialize in a specific area of interest. Many botanists pursue a master’s or Ph.D. in botany or a related field to delve deeper into specific areas of interest. Plant ecology, genetics, ethnobotany or plant pathology are some of the areas botanists can specialize in. Specialized coursework or research experience in these areas can provide a competitive edge.

Gaining practical experience

Botany internships and fieldwork offer aspiring botanists the chance to gain practical experience that complements their classroom learning. Students will develop essential skills in plant identification, data collection and ecological analysis, which are crucial in botany.

Hands-on experience

The best part about studying botany in college is how many opportunities you have for hands-on experience in the field. During summer breaks, you can work at a national park, plant nursery or farm or volunteer at a botanical garden. These nonprofits often offer internships related to plant biodiversity, habitat restoration and community engagement to educate others about the importance of native species and endangered plants.


Government agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service and environmental departments offer internships in land management, conservation, and environmental policy.

Through internships, you will gain exposure to diverse ecosystems and research methodologies, which encourage adaptability and problem-solving skills. You can spend time in the lab conducting research and learning about applying different scientific methods to plants on a molecular level at a biopharmaceutical company or environmental consultancy.

Building essential skills for botanists

Becoming a successful botanist requires more than just academic knowledge. It is essential to possess a range of skills and expertise that can only be acquired through hands-on experience, practical training and a deep passion for the natural world. 

  • Keen observation is paramount, allowing botanists to discern subtle variations in plant morphology, behavior and ecological interactions. 
  • Attention to detail ensures accurate scientific findings, which require precise data collection and documentation. 
  • Collaboration is key to working in interdisciplinary teams to foster diverse perspectives and enrich research outcomes.
  • Relentless curiosity encourages continuous exploration and a desire to understand the complexities of the plant world.
  • Botanists can effectively communicate complex ideas in written and verbal formats to various audiences, from scientists to policymakers to the general public.
  • Proficiency in laboratory techniques and data analysis, such as molecular biology or Geographic Information System (GIS), can help tackle the latest botanical challenges.
  • Flexibility and adaptability are also crucial, as field conditions and research questions may evolve, and you need to adjust methods and approaches as needed to achieve the desired results.

Ultimately, a successful botanist blends scientific acumen with interpersonal and practical skills to contribute meaningfully to the dynamic field of plant biology.

Navigating career paths as a botanist


Botany graduates have many career options available to them. Some choose academic paths, doing research and teaching at universities or research institutions. 

Public sector

Others work in government agencies, such as the U.S. Forest Service or Environmental Protection Agency, focused on land management, conservation and environmental policy. Botanists are also essential to botanical gardens, arboretums and museums where they curate collections, conduct research and educate the public. 

Private sector

There are opportunities in private sectors, such as environmental consulting, biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, where plant biology expertise is increasingly valued for applications ranging from sustainable agriculture to pharmaceutical development. Skilled botanists are in high demand due to the growing emphasis on ecological sustainability and biodiversity conservation. Botanists also work in seed companies, researching to enhance seed properties. 

Botanist vs. horticulturist

Job titles may vary once you’re on the job market, so it’s best to always read the description carefully to make sure it’s a fit for your career path. For example, a botanist is different from a horticulturist. A horticulturist focuses on cultivating plants, landscapes and soil treatment for maintaining gardens and greenspaces. Reach out to a mentor or career counselor to review if you’re unsure.

Grow your career in botany

If you have a passion for plants, nature and the environment, you may find a career as a botanist rewarding and fulfilling. Building a solid educational foundation focused on biology, ecology and related fields is essential to becoming a botanist. You can gain practical skills and insights through hands-on research experiences, internships and fieldwork.

As technology advances, staying updated with the latest tools, such as molecular biology and data analysis, is crucial to enhance your versatility in the field. Maintaining a genuine curiosity, a commitment to conservation and a love for the natural world can help make our world a better place and preserve its beauty.

The perspectives and thoughts shared in the Furman Blog belong solely to the author and may not align with the official stance or policies of Furman University. All referenced sources were accurate as of the date of publication.